An Method for Monitoring and Evaluating Neighborhood Mitigation Methods for COVID-19


Overview

Framework: Neighborhood mitigation methods to scale back or stop COVID-19 transmission in the USA are described in CDC’s framework for Implementation of Mitigation Methods For Communities with Native COVID-19 Transmission.1 The implementation framework describes the present targets, guiding rules, and mitigation methods to scale back or stop native COVID-19 transmission.

Method: An Method for Monitoring and Evaluating Neighborhood Mitigation Methods for COVID-19 describes CDC’s strategy to evaluating neighborhood mitigation methods and supplies overarching concerns to assist state, territorial, or native well being departments, tribal well being organizations, or others in monitoring and evaluating COVID-19 neighborhood mitigation methods, together with a logic mannequin, steered monitoring and analysis questions, and potential information sources. The strategy considers outcomes that reduce COVID-19 morbidity and related mortality, results of neighborhood mitigation methods on long-standing well being disparities and social determinants of well being, and the way communities thrive socially, emotionally, and economically.

Monitoring and Analysis Findings Can Be Used To:

  • Inform decision-making about strengthening, focusing, and stress-free mitigation methods
  • Perceive particular person and neighborhood components that assist or hinder mitigation behaviors
  • Monitor disparities and social determinants of well being and perceive how totally different populations take part in and are affected by neighborhood mitigation methods
  • Successfully talk info to the general public based mostly on culturally and linguistically acceptable methods
  • Make sure that the wants of disproportionately affected populations are met
  • Strengthen neighborhood components and outcomes associated to epidemiology, healthcare capability, social providers, and public well being capability
  • Disseminate classes discovered

Logic Mannequin Overview

Logic Mannequin: This logic mannequin presents the U.S. Neighborhood Mitigation Technique for COVID-19 at a excessive degree and acknowledges that many various stakeholders are engaged on particular parts of this technique.

Roles: Governments, organizations, and people assist and promote neighborhood mitigation methods throughout a number of settings and sectors, whereas paying particular consideration to disproportionately affected populations.

Neighborhood mitigation methods. Layering methods throughout settings and sectors the place individuals dwell, work, be taught, and collect supplies larger safeguards to scale back transmission. These methods could also be strengthened, centered, or relaxed based mostly on native context. By way of particular person, neighborhood, and environmental actions, neighborhood mitigation methods are carried out that:

  • promote behaviors that stop unfold,
  • keep wholesome environments,
  • keep wholesome operations, and
  • put together for when somebody will get sick;

And are designed to provide outcomes that:

  • cut back publicity amongst people,
  • cut back transmission,
  • cut back burden on the well being care system and improve entry to testing and make contact with tracing,
  • with the long-term targets of minimizing COVID-19 morbidity and related mortality.

Outcomes: Reaching these outcomes are important to making sure that communities thrive socially, emotionally, and economically. Working in collaboration, entities at federal, state and native ranges can monitor and consider social, emotional, and financial indicators that will embrace: monetary, meals, and housing safety; healthcare entry and utilization (comparable to care in search of behaviors); bodily and psychological well being; and neighborhood security and violence with particular consideration and a focus to disproportionately affected populations.

Logic Mannequin

Various Format

Monitoring & Analysis Questions, Potential Indicators and Associated Knowledge Sources

Questions: The next overarching monitoring and analysis questions may be tailored to satisfy neighborhood priorities and stakeholder wants.

Indicators and Knowledge Sources: Indicators and information sources may be tailor-made to align with the context of the supposed analysis. All indicators and information sources used for monitoring and analysis of neighborhood mitigation methods must be top quality and must be collected ethically (e.g., with respect for individuals, privateness, confidentiality) and scientifically (e.g.., with regard to validity, reliability, and representativeness). When out there, use information sources with a number of time-points out there for comparability. Indicators could also be analyzed general or to take a look at particular subgroups (e.g., city vs. rural, by racial/ethnic inhabitants, socioeconomic teams, and so forth.). The next desk supplies a choose variety of instance indicators and potential information sources and isn’t an exhaustive record. Contemplate information sources that greatest meet your monitoring and analysis wants and confer with CDC’s COVID-19 Secondary Knowledge and Statistics for publicly out there information sources. CDC doesn’t endorse any non-CDC information sources.

Potential Analysis Query

Potential Analysis Query

  1. Which neighborhood mitigation methods do jurisdictions implement, and the way and when are they carried out?
  • Description and timing of Keep-at-House/Shelter-in-Place orders
  • Description and timing of Mass Gatherings orders
  • Quantity/proportion of labor pressure that studies working remotely
  • Variety of Neighborhood- and Religion-Based mostly Organizations or native leaders who’re engaged to implement COVID-19 community-level mitigation methods
  • State/Native Coverage Information, Govt Orders, and Legislative Actions (e.g., Keep-at-House or Shelter-in-Place orders, faculty dismissals, Mass Gathering orders, journey orders, non-essential enterprise closures, restrictions on non-urgent medical procedures)
  • Survey Knowledge on Particular person and Organizational Behaviors (contemplate native and nationwide surveys)

Potential Analysis Query

  1. To what extent do people and organizations follow neighborhood mitigation methods?
  • P.c change in mobility (e.g., time spent at house, distance traveled, and by vacation spot comparable to transit stations, retail/ leisure, and worksites)**
  • Quantity/proportion of inhabitants that report utilizing masks exterior the house within the final week
  • Quantity/proportion of inhabitants who adhere to steerage in Keep-at-House orders, Shelter-in-Place orders, and phased re-openings
  • Quantity/proportion of inhabitants who report deciding to not journey or altering journey plans as a result of COVID-19
  • Proportion change in client spending throughout enterprise industries**
  • Mobility Knowledge*
  • Survey Knowledge on Particular person and Organizational Behaviors (contemplate native and nationwide surveys)
  • Organizational coverage data (e.g., faculty and childcare insurance policies, enterprise insurance policies, shared & combination housing insurance policies)
  • Shopper Spending Knowledge

Potential Analysis Query

  1. What components do communities use to evaluate readiness to strengthen, focus, or loosen up their mitigation methods over time?
  • Complete and incident COVID-19 checks/instances/hospitalizations/deaths
  • Proportion of respiratory specimens testing constructive for SARS-CoV-2
  • Quantity/proportion of public areas, workplaces, companies, faculties or properties practising acceptable cleansing and disinfection practices
  • COVID-19 Epidemiology, Neighborhood Traits, Healthcare Capability, and Public Well being Capability Indicators***
  • Survey Knowledge on Particular person and Organizational Behaviors (contemplate native and nationwide surveys)
  • State/Native Coverage Information, Govt Orders, and Legislative Actions

Potential Analysis Query

  1. What’s the relationship between implementation of mitigation methods and minimizing COVID-19 morbidity and related mortality?
  • Complete and incident COVID-19 checks/instances/deaths
  • Proportion of respiratory specimens testing constructive for SARS-CoV-2
  • Description and timing of Keep-at-House/Shelter-in-Place orders
  • Description and timing of Mass Gatherings orders
  • COVID-19 Epidemiology, Neighborhood Traits, Healthcare Capability, and Public Well being Capability Indicators***
  • State/Native Coverage Information, Govt Orders, and Legislative Actions

Potential Analysis Query

  1. What, if any, impression have neighborhood mitigation methods had on well being disparities or social determinants of well being?
  • Developments in extra instances, hospitalization, and mortality amongst disproportionately affected populations
  • Quantity/proportion of employees submitting unemployment claims
  • Quantity/proportion of eligible recipients enrolled in Ladies, Toddler, and Youngsters (WIC) /Supplemental Vitamin Help Program (SNAP) vitamin packages
  • Variety of calls to native/state hotline requesting housing help
  • Vaccination protection (e.g., universally beneficial vaccines amongst younger youngsters, adolescents)
  • Quantity/proportion of home violence calls to police
  • Quantity/proportion of people that really feel stress associated to COVID-19 has had a damaging impression on their psychological well being
  • COVID-19 Epidemiology, Neighborhood Traits, Healthcare Capability, and Public Well being Capability Indicators***
  • State/native administrative data (e.g., unemployment claims, WIC/SNAP enrollment, foreclosures or evictions, state or native immunization data, 911 information from Emergency Medical Providers)
  • Survey Knowledge on Particular person Attitudes, Behaviors, and High quality of Life (contemplate native and nationwide surveys)
*Mobility information sources anonymously geolocate private mobile units to know particular person motion in communities and house between people.
**Strategies to calculate % change will fluctuate based mostly on information availability. If out there, contemplate evaluating to a baseline worth. Assess what’s most possible in your state/native jurisdiction
***Knowledge sources associated to COVID-19 Epidemiology, Neighborhood Traits, Healthcare Capability, and Public Healthcare Capability ought to confer with present indicators: CDC COVID Knowledge Tracker or https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/open-america/surveillance-data-analytics.html as properly these being monitoring in your state/native jurisdiction.



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